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How to Video Record a Police Officer PT 2

Wednesday, May 23rd, 2018

pew How to Video Record a Police Officer PT 2

Here at Primeau Forensics, we come across many videos that were recorded of police officers using a smart phone. Statistics show that 77% of Americans use a smartphone. Couple that with the vast amount of apps on the market that make recording and sharing videos one of the easiest parts of a person’s day, it’s no surprise that an average of 60 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute.

“What does that have to do with video recording police officers and video forensics?” Because the ease of recording videos has become so prevalent in our society, more and more citizens are capturing both criminal activity and law enforcement interactions with their smartphones.

see How to Video Record a Police Officer PT 2

These videos become an integral part of the investigation. If they are poor quality, only so much can be done to forensically enhance them. Our goal is to give you the necessary solutions to common problems that we encounter to assist you in acquiring the best recording possible.

 

ls-phone How to Video Record a Police Officer PT 2

Problem #1: Unstable footage
Solution: Try to stay calm and focus on keeping the camera steady. Don’t zoom in too much on the subject to where your camera is unable to properly auto focus. Be sure to keep a safe distance. Should the video need additional zooming, it can be forensically enhanced.

Problem #2: Landscape vs Portrait
Solution: Always film in landscape mode. Filming in landscape offers a wider view of the situation. This provides investigators with valuable information, like point of entry, outside factors, and other surroundings. Filming in landscape mode also provides a clearer image for forensic experts.

 

Problem #3: The citizen who is filming does not “blend in” and in turn escalates the situation.mp How to Video Record a Police Officer PT 2

Solution: If you feel like you are too close to the situation, you probably are. Safety of you and everyone else is most important. So, when in doubt, back up. Also, don’t feel the need to use any equipment more than your smartphone. As technology advances, smartphone cameras are advancing with it. Most smartphones use a 1080p resolution, which is sufficient for forensic enhancement.

 

Problem #4: The video is edited or uploaded to social media before it is handed off to the proper authorities.
Solution: Don’t alter the video in anyway. Whether it is: shortening the video, using apps or software to enhance the video or the audio, or adding effects. All of these adjustments effect the Chain of Custody (he order in which a piece of criminal evidence should be handled by persons investigating a case, specif. the unbroken trail of accountability that ensures the physical security of samples, data, and records in a criminal investigation.) as well as the forensic experts ability to identify and/or authenticate the video. We have all seen viral videos on social media or news outlets of criminal activity or law enforcement interactions. While these are important to start what could be difficult conversations in our society, it is imperative that the investigation betactical-2 How to Video Record a Police Officer PT 2 complete before a video is made public. Posting the video online could give suspects important details that could hinder the investigation and put lives at risk. It is important to remember that what you film could affect people’s lives. Think how you would want someone to handle the footage if it was you or a loved one in the video.

 

Problem #5: The video is not unbiased and only focuses on one subject and not the entire situation.
Solution: While you may be emotionally invested in the situation, it is crucial that the video evidence be unbiased. In order for the investigation to be as accurate as possible, investigators need to see the event in its entirety. It is a good idea to begin filming as soon as you see a problem arising and continue filming until the interaction is finalized. Another good idea is to use multiple cameras when available. This provides multiple viewpoints as well as the ability to have multiple versions of the recording to have the best possible outcome.

 

If you are filming an interaction with law enforcement, be mindful and respectful of the officer’s tactical operating area. If you have concerns regarding an officer’s actions, take the appropriate measures to speak directly with their supervisor. If the officer asks you to back up, he/she is doing so for your safety. It is always best to work with the officer and not against them, and to Quote How to Video Record a Police Officer PT 2keep in mind that the officer may be in a heightened state of emotion from a previous incident. As Barrack Obama, once said, “Understand, our police officers put their lives on the line for us every single day. They’ve got a tough job to do to maintain public safety and hold accountable those who break the law.”

 

 

 

 

The guidelines provided in this video are based primarily on Michigan case law. For more information, visit the Michigan legislature website.

To learn more about our expert security consultant, Theo Chalogianis, please feel free to contact Chalogianis Consulting LLC at chalogianis@gmail.com.

Video Evidence Recovery for Video Enhancement

Monday, April 14th, 2014

1153871_61229211-1-1024x951 Video Evidence Recovery for Video EnhancementThe importance of proper video evidence recovery is very clear to those of us involved in forensic video enhancement. During the process of video evidence recovery, the trained video forensic expert will make sure the highest quality video recording will be properly saved for use in court.

As an audio/video forensic expert I have witnessed a huge growth in digital video recordings admitted into evidence in court over the last several years. Much of the work I do on these recordings is video enhancement which allows the Trier of Fact a better opportunity to view the events as they occurred. Sometimes this digital video evidence was recorded in video surveillance systems, other times it is from smart-phones.  Video surveillance recordings that I enhance are removed from both mobile surveillance systems and stationary surveillance systems.

Stationary surveillance systems record digital video at stationary locations like convenience stores, banks and other businesses or institutions. Mobile surveillance systems are being used more and more in busses, trains and other types of public transportation.

Many people involved in litigation who retain audio and video forensic experts like me do not realize how important professional evidence retrieval is.

There are three main factors I would like to mention regarding the reason for professional evidence recovery. First, when I retrieve evidence personally, I record a video of the process using a VIEVU body worn camera, which establishes an indisputable chain of custody. Second, I take special precautions during the retrieval process to make sure I leave with at least one version of the recording and leave with the evidence for future forensic enhancement and authentication.

I retrieve the recording so as to minimize any degradation of quality. When a multi-million dollar lawsuit may turn on the analysis of a surveillance video, it is imprudent to entrust evidence retrieval to an untrained security guard or police officer.

Third, I research the operator’s manual and connect with tech support from the surveillance company before I travel to the location of the surveillance equipment and make the evidence recovery. While I am on site I can also examine the administrative log and determine additional forensic information for the chain of custody.

I want to mention an excellent manual for retrieval of electronic evidence developed jointly by the federal government’s interagency Technical Support Working Group, the FBI Forensic Audio, Video, and Image Analysis Unit, and law enforcement agencies from around the world. Entitled Best Practices for the Retrieval of Video Evidence from Digital CCTV Systems, it contains an authoritative (if somewhat dated) overview of the topic, and covers many of the protocols we have adopted at Primeau Forensics.

Before digital audio and video recorders, retrieving a tape-based analogue recording was fairly straightforward. Recordings were made to tape cassettes, which were stored in climate-controlled conditions. Evidence retrieval was as simple as picking up the original cassette recording. Digital video recorders (DVRs), however, do not record to easily portable cassettes. Rather, they record to the kind of hard disk drives found in computers. These internal hard drives are not portable, making evidence retrieval more difficult. Whether I take the DVR or its internal drive with me or make a lossless copy of its contents, I always follow antistatic procedures and carry all media in specially shielded cases.

All surveillance and standard digital video is recorded using a specific compression/decompression scheme or codec. The compressed file is stored within a wrapper, a file structure, which determines its format. It is not uncommon for surveillance DVRs to use proprietary formats, allowing playback only through the original recording DVR. Some DVRs can recompress the original proprietary format file, transcoding it into a non-proprietary format for easy playback. However, these more accessible files often contain lower quality video and audio. When I retrieve these digital video files, I study the DVR’s operating manual to find the best way to make a high quality copy that retains all data and metadata. By minimizing or eliminating the degradation that can accompany translating the file from one format to another, I ensure that my lab analysis is based on the best video recording available.

Mobile Surveillance Video Evidence Recovery – Hard Drive Cloning

Wednesday, March 26th, 2014

opened-hard-disk-drive-liying-on-other-hard-drive_zJrBFjCd-234x300 Mobile Surveillance Video Evidence Recovery - Hard Drive CloningMobile Video Evidence Recovery: Simple as Cloning the DVR’s Hard Drive?

With the rapid proliferation of surveillance cameras in public and private spaces, law enforcement agencies are increasingly making use of these recordings as evidentiary video at trial. Moreover, mobile digital video recorders and other portable video recording technologies are making it much more practical to capture surveillance/crime scene video that may latter be used as evidence in court. Playback of these video recordings is straightforward, providing the video is played back using the original equipment on which it was recorded.

This caveat, unbeknownst to many attorneys and police officers,stems from a simple fact.Most fixed and mobile DVR-based surveillance systems employ proprietary computer operating systems and record digital video to proprietary formats. Under these circumstances, causing minimal degradation of picture quality during the process of recovering and trans coding video files is a complex challenge for both law enforcement agencies and video forensic experts. There are a wide variety of surveillance system manufacturers and a larger number of different models of DVRs, which makes on-site retrieval of video recordings a difficult process, often necessitating access to the technical manual of the DVR on which the recording is stored.

The investigators at Primeau Forensics have worked on countless evidence recovery assignments where simple cloning of the DVR’s hard drive would have been the worst retrieval strategy of all. First, the cloned drive may not mount on our computers, which run Windows and Apple operating systems. Second, proprietary files are often invisible files outside their native OS. They cannot be detected or read by any operating system but the embedded OS running on the dedicated device. Third, video files may be encoded using a non-standard codec and/or formatted within a non-standard wrapper.

For example, NVR format video files, frequently used in surveillance systems, come in a multitude of types, each with its own structural and descriptive metadata. Associated files present, such as the control files and system files that enable playback on the original DVR, will often impede playback on general-purpose computers. File Investigator Engine and File Expander Engine from Dark Data Discovery allow forensic investigators to identify and open over 4,300 different types of files, yet simply cloning the DVR’s hard drive remains a strategy fraught with complications.

Successful retrieval of DVR recordings always requires preparation and research beforehand. We always browse the Internet, contact the manufacturer, and read the manuals over and over to determine the best way to preserve this fragile digital evidence in its most pristine quality. As trial verdicts may turn on the outcome of our analysis of evidentiary video, we want to personally recover the video to establish a clear chain of custody, prevent accidental loss of files, and preserve the video quality through recovery and trans coding to an open format.

We recommend the following 4-step process for retrieval of video from DVRs:

1)      As previously mentioned, research the design, inputs/outputs and operation of the DVR you are examining. Obtain the special software, codecs, and technical manuals necessary to examine the unit properly.

2)      Photograph the digital video recorder before you begin the inspection. Take note of any markings or signs of tampering.

3)      Connect the DVR or mobile digital video recorder to the power source that will power the unit best. Sometimes, mobile digital video recorders require an AC/DC cable system to power the unit in an office environment. The vehicle or locale in which it was originally installed may have had custom power connections, not available if the unit is pulled for examination.

4)      Connect the data transfer cable supplied with the unit to your Windows laptop for examination. In some cases, this will be a standard USB or FireWire cable. Mobile video recorders, in particular, frequently require a proprietary cable. Having installed the DVR emulation software provided by the manufacturer and the proprietary encoder/decoder, you are ready to follow the instructions in the manual to retrieve the highest quality video possible.

If you need professional assistance recovering video evidence from a digital video recorder, please call us today! Call 800-647-4281 for a free consultation.

 

Video Forensic Expert Edward J Primeau Curriculum Vitae

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